Ginkgo biloba, an ancient tree species known for its distinct fan-shaped leaves, has seen its extracts lauded as a miracle supplement over the years, with a range of purported benefits from boosting memory to improving cerebral circulation. These reported - and essentially clinically proven - benefits are why Ginkgo biloba is now used in many of the best nootropics for memory and brain health on the market today.

Yet, it's crucial to remember that every health elixir comes with its own set of caveats. In this comprehensive overview, we delve into the lesser-discussed side effects of Ginkgo biloba. 

From the common to the rare, the mild to the severe, we shed light on these potential risks, helping you make a well-informed decision about incorporating this supplement into your wellness regimen.

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What is Ginkgo Biloba?

Ginkgo biloba, also known as the maidenhair tree, is one of the oldest living tree species in the world. Its lineage can be traced back more than 270 million years, making it a true living fossil. The extract derived from the leaves of this unique tree has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine and has gained popularity worldwide for its numerous health benefits.

The active components in ginkgo biloba extract include flavonoids and terpenoids, known for their strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, respectively. It's these compounds that are thought to contribute to ginkgo's widely touted benefits for brain health, circulation, and more.

However, ginkgo biloba's medicinal profile extends beyond its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities. Research suggests it may have neuroprotective effects, help improve cognitive function, and aid in conditions related to poor blood flow.

Nonetheless, as with any supplement or medication, ginkgo biloba isn't free from potential side effects. Understanding these is crucial for anyone considering adding this supplement to their daily regimen. In the following sections, we'll explore these side effects in detail, providing a comprehensive picture of the potential risks associated with ginkgo biloba use.

Benefits of Ginkgo Biloba

The benefits of Ginkgo Biloba are vast and varied, backed by both traditional uses and scientific research. Here are the primary benefits associated with this ancient tree extract:

  • Cognitive Health: Ginkgo is most recognized for its positive impact on brain health. Studies suggest that it may improve cognitive function, memory, and concentration by increasing blood flow to the brain.

  • Antioxidant Properties: The flavonoids present in ginkgo biloba act as powerful antioxidants, combating damaging free radicals in the body. This action helps in preventing cell damage and aging-related diseases.

  • Anti-Inflammatory: Terpenoids, another type of compound found in ginkgo, have anti-inflammatory effects which can reduce inflammation in various body systems.

  • Improved Blood Flow: Ginkgo biloba is known to dilate blood vessels and reduce the stickiness of platelets, promoting improved circulation throughout the body.

  • Vision and Eye Health: Some research suggests that ginkgo biloba may help slow the progression of age-related eye diseases by improving blood flow to the eyes and combating oxidative stress.

  • Tinnitus Relief: Preliminary research indicates ginkgo may help reduce symptoms of tinnitus, a condition characterized by ringing in the ears.

  • Management of Asthma and COPD: Ginkgo biloba may help manage symptoms of respiratory diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by reducing inflammation.

While these benefits are promising, it's important to approach ginkgo biloba supplementation with caution. Potential side effects should be considered, especially in high doses or in combination with other supplements or medications. Let's delve into these potential adverse effects in the upcoming sections.

Side Effects of Ginkgo Biloba

Here is an overview of the main side effects reported by Ginkgo biloba, both in clinical trials and anecdotal reports from users of the supplement.

Digestive Issues

Ginkgo biloba may cause some users to experience digestive discomfort, particularly in the form of an upset stomach, nausea, or diarrhea. This is often a result of the body adjusting to the new supplement and is generally mild and temporary. However, it can be more severe or persistent in some individuals. To reduce the risk, consider starting with a lower dose and gradually increasing over time. As always, consult with a healthcare professional if symptoms persist.


For some, Ginkgo biloba may cause headaches, a relatively common side effect. These headaches may vary from mild to severe and could be accompanied by other symptoms such as dizziness. The exact mechanism behind these headaches isn't clear but could be due to vasodilation caused by the supplement. If you experience headaches after taking Ginkgo biloba, it may be worth reducing the dosage or discontinuing use if symptoms persist.


Dizziness is another potential side effect of Ginkgo biloba, and it's typically linked with taking more than the recommended dosage. This sensation of being unsteady or losing balance can cause discomfort and, in severe cases, increase the risk of falls. If you experience dizziness after taking Ginkgo biloba, ensure to sit or lie down until the feeling passes. It may be necessary to adjust the dosage or discontinue the supplement if dizziness occurs frequently.

Allergic Reactions

Some individuals might experience an allergic reaction to Ginkgo biloba. These reactions can range from mild to severe, with symptoms such as skin rashes, itching, or hives. In more severe cases, individuals may experience breathing difficulties or swelling of the face, throat, or tongue. If you notice any signs of an allergic reaction after taking Ginkgo biloba, seek immediate medical attention.

Bleeding Disorders

Ginkgo biloba can increase the risk of bleeding due to its blood-thinning properties. This can be a serious issue for individuals with bleeding disorders or those taking anticoagulant medications. It can also increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. If you have a bleeding disorder, are taking anticoagulants, or are planning for surgery, consult with your healthcare professional before using Ginkgo biloba.


There have been a few reports of seizures occurring in individuals using Ginkgo biloba. This is a relatively rare side effect, but it is potentially serious. The risk might be higher in individuals with a history of seizures or those taking seizure medications. If you experience a seizure after taking Ginkgo biloba, seek immediate medical attention. Individuals with a history of seizures should use Ginkgo biloba only under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Ginkgo Biloba and Risk of Brain Bleeds or Strokes

Ginkgo biloba is strongly associated with numerous health benefits, particularly related to cognitive function and memory enhancement. However, there are concerns about its potential to increase the risk of bleeding, including in the brain, which can lead to serious conditions like hemorrhagic strokes.

Ginkgo biloba contains compounds that are known to thin the blood and improve circulation. These blood-thinning properties can be beneficial in certain circumstances, for example, in preventing the formation of blood clots. However, in situations where bleeding risk is already elevated, the use of Ginkgo biloba may further increase this risk.

condition that requires immediate medical attention. The potential for Ginkgo biloba to increase bleeding risk suggests it could, in theory, raise the likelihood of a hemorrhagic stroke, especially in susceptible individuals.

However, more research is needed to confirm this potential risk. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials found no significant increase in the risk of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke with Ginkgo biloba use. However, it's essential to note that individual responses to supplements can vary greatly, and those with risk factors for stroke or brain bleeds should use caution.

Always consult a healthcare professional before starting a new supplement regimen, particularly if you have existing health conditions or are on other medications. In particular, individuals taking blood thinners or those with a history of brain bleeds or stroke should consult with a healthcare provider before using Ginkgo biloba.

Potential Drug Interactions

Just like any other supplement, Ginkgo biloba doesn’t exist in a vacuum and can interact with certain medications. Here are some crucial drug interactions that one must be aware of:

Blood-thinning Medications

Ginkgo biloba’s ability to decrease platelet aggregation and potentially prolong bleeding time can be a concern when used in conjunction with blood-thinning medications. These drugs, also known as anticoagulants or antiplatelets, are used to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke. Examples include warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin, and clopidogrel (Plavix). Using Ginkgo biloba with these medications could increase the risk of bleeding, including serious events such as gastrointestinal bleeding or hemorrhagic stroke.

Blood Pressure Medications

Ginkgo biloba can potentially affect blood pressure. Studies have shown that it can cause small decreases in blood pressure, making it potentially problematic when taken with antihypertensive drugs. This is because using these two together could cause your blood pressure to drop too low. Antihypertensive drugs include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, and calcium channel blockers, among others.

In addition, Ginkgo biloba might interfere with the management of diabetes, as it can affect blood sugar levels. Therefore, caution should be taken when using it alongside insulin or other antidiabetic drugs.

It's always important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement, especially if you're already on medication. This is not an exhaustive list of all potential drug interactions, so open communication with your healthcare provider is key to ensuring safe and effective use of Ginkgo biloba.

How To Take Ginkgo Biloba Safely

To harness the potential benefits of Ginkgo biloba while minimizing the risk of side effects and drug interactions, here are a few essential guidelines on how to take this supplement safely:

Follow the Recommended Dosage

Ginkgo biloba supplements come in various forms, such as capsules, tablets, liquid extracts, and teas. The standard recommended dose for adults ranges from 120 to 240 milligrams daily, taken in two or three divided doses. However, the optimal dosage can vary depending on individual health conditions, age, and the specific product. Always follow the manufacturer's instructions or your healthcare provider's advice on dosage.

Start with a Lower Dose

If you are new to Ginkgo biloba, it's prudent to start with a lower dose and gradually increase it. This approach helps your body to adapt to the supplement and allows you to monitor any potential side effects closely.

Monitor for Side Effects

Even though Ginkgo biloba is generally well-tolerated, it's essential to be aware of possible side effects, such as digestive discomfort, headache, or allergic reactions. If you notice any adverse reactions, stop taking the supplement and consult your healthcare provider.

Avoid If You're on Certain Medications

As discussed earlier, Ginkgo biloba can interact with certain medications, like blood thinners and blood pressure drugs. If you're taking these medications, it's best to avoid Ginkgo biloba or consult with your healthcare provider before starting the supplement.

Pregnant or Breastfeeding Women Should Avoid

Due to limited research, it's generally advised that pregnant or breastfeeding women should avoid taking Ginkgo biloba.

Consult with Your Healthcare Provider

Before starting any new supplement, including Ginkgo biloba, it's always a good idea to consult with a healthcare provider, especially if you have underlying health conditions. Your healthcare provider can help evaluate whether the supplement is suitable for you and guide you on the appropriate dosage to take.

Remember, supplements like Ginkgo biloba should not replace a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle but should be used as part of an overall wellness strategy.

Is It Safe To Take Ginkgo Biloba Every Day?

The daily use of Ginkgo biloba is generally considered safe for most people when taken in the recommended dosages. Many individuals take Ginkgo biloba daily for several months or even years without experiencing adverse side effects. However, the safety of long-term use is still under investigation, and it's important to remember that individual reactions to supplements can vary. Therefore, while daily use may be safe for many, it's advisable to monitor your body's reactions, take breaks from usage occasionally, and always consult with a healthcare provider before starting or continuing a daily Ginkgo biloba regimen.

Conclusion: Is Ginkgo Biloba Safe?

Understanding the potential side effects of Ginkgo biloba is essential for those considering this herbal supplement as part of their health regimen. While Ginkgo biloba offers multiple benefits, including improved cognitive function and antioxidant properties, it is not without its risks. These can range from mild symptoms like headaches or gastrointestinal problems to more serious ones such as increased bleeding risk or potential interactions with blood-thinning and blood pressure medications.

Always remember that each individual's response to Ginkgo biloba may differ. Hence, it's crucial to monitor your body's reaction closely and seek professional medical advice before starting or continuing the supplement, particularly if you have underlying health conditions or are on other medications.

 In conclusion, Ginkgo biloba is a powerful supplement with promising health benefits, but like any other supplement, it should be used with caution and proper understanding of its potential side effects.

Ginkgo biloba, an herbal supplement derived from the leaves of the ancient

Ginkgo biloba, an ancient tree species native to China, has been used

Ginkgo biloba, a popular herbal supplement derived from the leaves of the

About the Author Chris Fraighten

Chris Fraighten is a leading biomedical researcher and currently the lead author of the Epimodels blog. He holds qualifications in chemistry, biology and is highly experienced in the fields of quantitative modelling and epidemiology. He brings this wealth of knowledge and experience to the Epimodels blog to bring you insightful, informative and interesting content on the latest advances in the space.