Transmission dynamics, border entry screening, and school holidays during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, China.

TitleTransmission dynamics, border entry screening, and school holidays during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, China.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsYu H, Cauchemez S, Donnelly CA, Zhou L, Feng L, Xiang N, Zheng J, Ye M, Huai Y, Liao Q, Peng Z, Feng Y, Jiang H, Yang W, Wang Y, Ferguson NM, Feng Z
JournalEmerg Infect Dis
Date Published2012 May
KeywordsChina, Emigrants and Immigrants, Holidays, Humans, Incidence, Infectious Disease Incubation Period, Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype, Influenza, Human, Pandemics, Population Surveillance, Schools, Travel

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus spread rapidly around the world in 2009. We used multiple data sources from surveillance systems and specific investigations to characterize the transmission patterns of this virus in China during May-November 2009 and analyze the effectiveness of border entry screening and holiday-related school closures on transmission. In China, age distribution and transmission dynamic characteristics were similar to those in Northern Hemisphere temperate countries. The epidemic was focused in children, with an effective reproduction number of ≈1.2-1.3. The 8 days of national holidays in October reduced the effective reproduction number by 37% (95% credible interval 28%-45%) and increased underreporting by ≈20%-30%. Border entry screening detected at most 37% of international travel-related cases, with most (89%) persons identified as having fever at time of entry. These findings suggest that border entry screening was unlikely to have delayed spread in China by >4 days.

Alternate JournalEmerging Infect. Dis.
PubMed ID22515989
PubMed Central IDPMC3358060
Grant ListU19 AI51915 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
U54 GM088491 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
/ / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
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